|Application ||WB, IHC, FC|
|Calculated MW||38964 Da|
|Other Names||N-formyl peptide receptor 2, FMLP-related receptor I, FMLP-R-I, Formyl peptide receptor-like 1, HM63, Lipoxin A4 receptor, LXA4 receptor, RFP, FPR2, FPRH1, FPRL1, LXA4R|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)GGTPEERLKVAIT, corresponding to amino acid residues 184-196 of human FPR2/ALX (Accession P25090). 2nd extracellular loop.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis.|
|Application Details||Immunohistochemistry (IH): - Mouse submandibular glands and human minor salivary glands (1:200) (see Nelson J. et al. (2014) in Product Citations).|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||Add 50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.6 mg/ml.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
|Formulation||Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.025% NaN3.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Chemotactic factors from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are short peptides with N-formyl methionine at the N-terminus (extensively reviewed in reference 1). These peptides are released from bacteria during infection and activate formyl peptide receptor (FPR), a member of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In human, the FPR family consists mainly of three receptors, FPR1, FPR2/ALX (formerly FPRL1), and FPR3 (formerly FPRL2) which all couple to the Gi subtype of G-proteins and ultimately lead to the activation of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca2+ increase1,2. FPRL1 or FPR2/ALX as commonly called is a seven transmembrane protein like all GPCRs. This receptor was originally cloned by screening a HL60 neutrophil cDNA library with a FPR1 cDNA probe3. FPR2/ALX shares 69% identity with FPR1 and despite its high homology, it displays relatively low affinity for fmlf, the most potent N-formyl peptide released by bacteria3. FPR1 was originally found in neutrophils and later found to be distributed myeloid and non-myeloid cells as is the case for FPR2/ALX and FPR3 (FPR3 though is not expressed in neutrophils). FPR1 is also expressed in multiple organs and tissues including epithelial cells in organs with secretory functions, endocrine cells, liver hepathocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, brain spinal cord and both motor and sensory neurons4. FPR2/ALX has a similar tissue distribution to that of FPR1. While N-formyl peptides were the first peptides found to activate these receptors, the ligand diversity for FPR has proven to be quite broad and demonstrates to be both pro- and anti-inflammatory. They include peptidic ligands originating from bacterial and viral sources (including HIV), endogenous ligands such as chemokines and annexins, short peptides associated with inflammation and infection. Interestingly, b-amyloid peptide, a known marker for Alzheimer’s disease activates FPR2/ALX thereby directly linking these receptors to the neurodegenerative disease. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is the first identified endogenous ligand for FPR2/ALX and is an eicosanoid with potent anti-inflammatory characteristics1. Considering that FPR2/ALX can be activated by two different types of ligands, this receptor can be categorized in two different GPCR subgroups: Formylpeptide Receptors and Leukotriene Receptors.
1. Ye, R.D. et al. (2009) Pharmacol. Rev. 61, 119.
2. Le, Y. et al. (2002) Trends Immunol. 23, 541.
3. Murphy, P.M. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 7637.
4. Becker, E.L. (1998) Cell Tissue Res. 292, 129.
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