|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||50981 Da|
|Other Names||Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha, GSK-3 alpha, Serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3A, GSK3A|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in human GSK3α/β was used as an immunogen. This antibody detects both GSK α and GSK3β.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||GSK3 alpha/beta Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC and AXIN1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. Contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. Regulates glycogen metabolism in liver, but not in muscle. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. In Wnt signaling, regulates the level and transcriptional activity of nuclear CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Facilitates amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the generation of APP-derived amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer disease. May be involved in the regulation of replication in pancreatic beta-cells. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Glycogen synthases kinase 3 alpha (GSK3-α) is a multifunctional Serine/Threonine protein kinase, one of two isoforms of GSK3 (1). Originally identified as a regulator of glycogen synthase, it has been shown to be involved in the hormonal control of several regulatory factors and transcription factors. GSK3-α activity is down regulated by phosphorylation on Serine 21 by PKB, or activated by phosphorylation on Tyrosine 279 (2). Insulin inactivates GSK3-α by rapid phosphorylation which leads to activation of Glycogen Synthase in the cells (3). GSK3-α activitiy has been linked to a pathogenic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (4). GSK3 beta) plays a key role in insulin and Wnt signaling, phosphorylating downstream targets by default, and becoming inhibited following the extracellular signaling event (5).
1. Martinho RG, et al. EMBO J. 17:7239-7249, 1998.
3. Sanchez Y, et al. Science 277:1497-1501, 1997
4. Lovestone S, et al. Curr Biol 4(12):1077-1086, 1994.
5. Dajani R, et al. Cell 105(6): 721-32
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