|Application ||WB, IHC|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||44288 Da|
|Other Names||Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, MAP kinase kinase 4, MAPKK 4, JNK-activating kinase 1, MAPK/ERK kinase 4, MEK 4, SAPK/ERK kinase 1, SEK1, Stress-activated protein kinase kinase 1, SAPK kinase 1, SAPKK-1, SAPKK1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinase 1, JNKK, MAP2K4, JNKK1, MEK4, MKK4, PRKMK4, SEK1, SERK1, SKK1|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in the C-term of human MKK4 was used as immunogen.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||MKK4 Antibody (C-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||JNKK1, MEK4, MKK4, PRKMK4, SEK1, SERK1,|
|Function||Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Essential component of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. With MAP2K7/MKK7, is the one of the only known kinase to directly activate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinases MAPK8/JNK1, MAPK9/JNK2 and MAPK10/JNK3. MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 both activate the JNKs by phosphorylation, but they differ in their preference for the phosphorylation site in the Thr-Pro-Tyr motif. MAP2K4 shows preference for phosphorylation of the Tyr residue and MAP2K7/MKK7 for the Thr residue. The phosphorylation of the Thr residue by MAP2K7/MKK7 seems to be the prerequisite for JNK activation at least in response to proinflammatory cytokines, while other stimuli activate both MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 which synergistically phosphorylate JNKs. MAP2K4 is required for maintaining peripheral lymphoid homeostasis. The MKK/JNK signaling pathway is also involved in mitochondrial death signaling pathway, including the release cytochrome c, leading to apoptosis. Whereas MAP2K7/MKK7 exclusively activates JNKs, MAP2K4/MKK4 additionally activates the p38 MAPKs MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13 and MAPK14.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus|
|Tissue Location||Abundant expression is seen in the skeletal muscle. It is also widely expressed in other tissues|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
MKK4, also known as JNKK1 and SEK1, is a dual specificity kinase that belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MKK4 is a direct activator of MAP kinases in response to various environmental stresses or mitogenic stimuli. MKK4 phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase and JNK but not ERK 1/2 (1-2). JNK is activated by dual phosphorylation at Thr and Tyr by MKK4 and MKK7; although MKK4 will preferentially phosphorylate Tyr (3). MKK4 is also known to be a tumor suppressor, as mutations inactivating the MKK4 gene have been found in 5% of a wide variety of tumor types (4).
1. Lin, et al. Science 268: 286-290, 1995
2. Sanchez I, Hughes RT, Mayer BJ, et al Nature (Lond) 1994;372:794-8
3. Lawler, S., Fleming, Y., Goedert, M., and Cohen, P. (1998) Curr. Biol. 8, 1387
4. Yoshida et al. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 5483
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