|Application ||WB, IHC|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||67660 Da|
|Other Names||Protein kinase C zeta type, nPKC-zeta, PRKCZ, PKC2|
|Target/Specificity||A phospho specific peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Threonine 560 of human PKC zeta was used as an immunogen. This antibody detects PKC zeta phosphorylated at Threonine 560.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||PKC-zeta Antibody Phospho (pT560) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, and is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, mitogenic signaling, cell proliferation, cell polarity, inflammatory response and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in macrophages, or following mitogenic stimuli, functions downstream of PI3K to activate MAP2K1/MEK1-MAPK1/ERK2 signaling cascade independently of RAF1 activation. Required for insulin-dependent activation of AKT3, but may function as an adapter rather than a direct activator. Upon insulin treatment may act as a downstream effector of PI3K and contribute to the activation of translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 and subsequent glucose transport in adipocytes. In EGF-induced cells, binds and activates MAP2K5/MEK5-MAPK7/ERK5 independently of its kinase activity and can activate JUN promoter through MEF2C. Through binding with SQSTM1/p62, functions in interleukin-1 signaling and activation of NF-kappa-B with the specific adapters RIPK1 and TRAF6. Participates in TNF-dependent transactivation of NF-kappa-B by phosphorylating and activating IKBKB kinase, which in turn leads to the degradation of NF-kappa-B inhibitors. In migrating astrocytes, forms a cytoplasmic complex with PARD6A and is recruited by CDC42 to function in the establishment of cell polarity along with the microtubule motor and dynein. In association with FEZ1, stimulates neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. In the inflammatory response, is required for the T-helper 2 (Th2) differentiation process, including interleukin production, efficient activation of JAK1 and the subsequent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT6. May be involved in development of allergic airway inflammation (asthma), a process dependent on Th2 immune response. In the NF-kappa-B-mediated inflammatory response, can relieve SETD6-dependent repression of NF-kappa-B target genes by phosphorylating the RELA subunit at 'Ser-311'. Necessary and sufficient for LTP maintenance in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. In vein endothelial cells treated with the oxidant peroxynitrite, phosphorylates STK11 leading to nuclear export of STK11, subsequent inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, and increased apoptosis. Phosphorylates VAMP2 in vitro (PubMed:17313651).|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Endosome. Cell junction. Note=In the retina, localizes in the terminals of the rod bipolar cells. Associates with endosomes Presence of KRIT1, CDH5 and RAP1B is required for its localization to the cell junction. Colocalizes with VAMP2 and WDFY2 in intracellular vesicles.|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in brain, and to a lesser extent in lung, kidney and testis|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Protein kinase C (PKC), a class of serine/threonine kinases activated by Ca2+ and/or phospholipids, is involved in a variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and secretion. PKC zeta exhibits a constitutive kinase activity which is independent of Ca2+, phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol. Arachidonic acid alone or a combination of gamma-linolenic acid and phosphatidylserine slightly enhance PKC zeta activity. PKC zeta, in contrast to PKC alpha, is insensitive to PKC inhibitors known to interfere either with the regulatory or the catalytic domain and cannot be activated by phorbol ester treatment of NIH 3T3 cells or insect cells, overexpressing the respective PKC isoenzyme (1). Results have identified PDK-1 as the kinase that phosphorylates and activates PKC zeta in the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway. This phosphorylation and activation of PKC zeta by PDK-1 is enhanced in the presence of Ptdins-3,4-5-P3. PKCs are enzymes that are regulated at the plasma membrane, and a membrane-targeted PKC zeta is constitutively active in the absence of agonist stimulation. The association between PKC zeta and PDK-1 reveals extensive cross-talk between enzymes in the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway. (2)
1. Kochs G, et al. Eur J Biochem 216(2):597-606, 1993
2. Chou MM, et al. Curr Biol 8(19):1069-77
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