|Application ||WB, E|
|Calculated MW||25644 Da|
|Description||TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha) is an important cytokine produced by numerous cell types including neutrophils, activated lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells. It plays a critical role in inflammatory responses and in apoptosis. TNF-alpha is believed to mediate pathogenic shock and tissue injury associated with endotoxemia. TNF-alpha exists as a multimer of two, three, or five non covalently linked units, but shows a single 17 kDa band following SDS PAGE under non reducing conditions. Although it has little effect on many cultured normal human cells, TNF-alpha appears to be directly toxic to vascular endothelial cells. Other actions of TNF-alpha include stimulating growth of human fibroblasts and other cell lines, activating polymorphonuclear neutrophils and osteoclasts, and induction of interleukin 1, prostaglandin E2 and collagenase production. TNF-alpha is currently being evaluated in treatment of certain cancers and AIDS Related Complex.|
|Immunogen||Recombinant Human TNF-alpha (BioSource company, Cat.No. PHC3013)|
|Formulation||Purified antibody in PBS containing 0.03% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Tumor necrosis factor, Cachectin, TNF-alpha, Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2, TNF-a, Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form, N-terminal fragment, NTF, Intracellular domain 1, ICD1, Intracellular domain 2, ICD2, C-domain 1, C-domain 2, Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form, TNF, TNFA, TNFSF2|
|Dilution||WB~~1/500 - 1/2000|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||TNF-alpha Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs regulatory T-cells (Treg) function in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis via FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which dephosphorylates the key 'Ser-418' residue of FOXP3, thereby inactivating FOXP3 and rendering Treg cells functionally defective (PubMed:23396208). Key mediator of cell death in the anticancer action of BCG-stimulated neutrophils in combination with DIABLO/SMAC mimetic in the RT4v6 bladder cancer cell line (PubMed:22517918).|
|Cellular Location||Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form: Secreted C-domain 2: Secreted.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
1. Knowlton KU. Yajima T. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004,Sep 15, 44(6):1298-300. 2. Reynolds JL. Ignatowski TA. Gallant S.et al. Brain Res. 2004,Oct 8, 1023(1):112-20. 3. Dulak J. Tomala K. Loboda A. et al. Life Sci. 2004,Oct 8, 75(21):2573-86.
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