|Other Names||Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3, MAD homolog 3, Mad3, Mothers against DPP homolog 3, hMAD-3, JV15-2, SMAD family member 3, SMAD 3, Smad3, hSMAD3, SMAD3, MADH3|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP13540c was selected from the Center region of SMAD3. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and migration of primary keratinocytes and by altering the TGF- mediated chemotaxis of monocytes. This effect on wound healing appears to be hormone-sensitive. Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Cytoplasmic and nuclear in the absence of TGF-beta. On TGF-beta stimulation, migrates to the nucleus when complexed with SMAD4 (PubMed:15799969). Through the action of the phosphatase PPM1A, released from the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, and exported out of the nucleus by interaction with RANBP1 (PubMed:16751101, PubMed:19289081). Co-localizes with LEMD3 at the nucleus inner membrane (PubMed:15601644). MAPK-mediated phosphorylation appears to have no effect on nuclear import (PubMed:19218245). PDPK1 prevents its nuclear translocation in response to TGF-beta (PubMed:17327236)|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, afamily of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophilagene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegansgene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptionalmodulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This proteinfunctions as a transcriptional modulator activated by transforminggrowth factor-beta and is thought to play a role in the regulationof carcinogenesis.
Ge, Q., et al. J. Cell. Physiol. 225(3):846-854(2010)Lee, J., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 285(34):26618-26627(2010)Roder, C., et al. Childs Nerv Syst (2010) In press :Valdes, A.M., et al. Arthritis Rheum. 62(8):2347-2352(2010)Jugessur, A., et al. PLoS ONE 5 (7), E11493 (2010) :
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