|Calculated MW||70392 Da|
|Positive Control||Western blot: Recombinant protein|
|Application & Usage||Western blot: ~1:200|
|Other Names||NGR beta 1, Heregulin, HRG 1beta, Neuregulin|
|Target/Specificity||Heregulin 1 beta|
|Formulation||100 µg or 30 µg (0.5 mg/ml) of antibody in PBS pH 7.2 containing 0.01 % BSA, 0.01 % thimerosal, and 50 % glycerol.|
|Handling||The antibody solution should be gently mixed before use.|
|Reconstitution & Storage||-20 °C|
|Precautions||Neuregulin/Heregulin-1β Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||GGF, HGL, HRGA, NDF, SMDF|
|Function||Direct ligand for ERBB3 and ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptors. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. The multiple isoforms perform diverse functions such as inducing growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial, neuronal, and skeletal muscle cells; inducing expression of acetylcholine receptor in synaptic vesicles during the formation of the neuromuscular junction; stimulating lobuloalveolar budding and milk production in the mammary gland and inducing differentiation of mammary tumor cells; stimulating Schwann cell proliferation; implication in the development of the myocardium such as trabeculation of the developing heart. Isoform 10 may play a role in motor and sensory neuron development. Binds to ERBB4 (PubMed:10867024, PubMed:7902537). Binds to ERBB3 (PubMed:20682778). Acts as a ligand for integrins and binds (via EGF domain) to integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4. Its binding to integrins and subsequent ternary complex formation with integrins and ERRB3 are essential for NRG1-ERBB signaling. Induces the phosphorylation and activation of MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK1/ERK2 and AKT1 (PubMed:20682778). Ligand-dependent ERBB4 endocytosis is essential for the NRG1-mediated activation of these kinases in neurons (By similarity).|
|Cellular Location||Pro-neuregulin-1, membrane-bound isoform: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Note=Does not seem to be active Isoform 8: Nucleus. Note=May be nuclear. Isoform 10: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Note=May possess an internal uncleaved signal sequence|
|Tissue Location||Type I isoforms are the predominant forms expressed in the endocardium. Isoform alpha is expressed in breast, ovary, testis, prostate, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, placenta liver, kidney, salivary gland, small intestine and brain, but not in uterus, stomach, pancreas, and spleen. Isoform 3 is the predominant form in mesenchymal cells and in non-neuronal organs, whereas isoform 6 is the major neuronal form. Isoform 8 is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Isoform 9 is the major form in skeletal muscle cells; in the nervous system it is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Also detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. Isoform 10 is expressed in nervous system: spinal cord motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain. Predominant isoform expressed in sensory and motor neurons. Not detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. Not expressed in fetal lung, liver and kidney. Type IV isoforms are brain-specific|
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Neuregulin/Heregulin is a family of structurally related polypeptide growth factors derived from alternatively spliced genes (NRG1, NRG2, NRG3 and NRG4). To date, there are over 14 soluble and transmembrane proteins derived from the NRG1 gene. Proteolytic processing of the extracellular domain of the transmembrane NRG1 isoforms release soluble growth factors. HRG1-β1 contains an Ig domain and an EGF-like domain that is necessary for direct binding to receptor tyrosine kinases erb3 and erb4. This binding induces erb3 and erb4 heterodimerization with erb2, stimulating intrinsic kinase activity, which leads to tyrosine phosphorylation. Although HRG1-β1 biological effects is still unclear, it has been found to promote motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cells which may also involve up-regulation of expression and function of the autocrine motility-promoting factor (AMF). Recombinant human Heregulin-β1 (HRG1-β1) is a 7.5 kDa polypeptide consisting of only the EGF domain of Heregulin-β1 (65 amino acid residues).
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