|Application ||WB, E|
|Description||Transcription factors of the nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB)/Rel family is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that regulates many cytokine and Ig genes. It is involved in immune, inflammatory, viral, and acute phase responses. There are five family members in mammals: RelA (p65), c-Rel, RelB, NF-κB1 (p105/p50) and NF-κB2 (p100/p52). The most studied NF-κB complex consists of the p50 and p65 subunits, both containing a 300 amino acid region with homology to the Rel proto-oncogene product. The p50 subunit binds DNA, whereas the p65 subunit is responsible for theinteraction of NF-κB with its inhibitor, IκB. In most cell types, the p50/p65 heterodimer is located within the cytoplasm complexed to IκB. This complex prevents nuclear translocation and activity of NF-κB. In response to stimuli such as cytokines, LPS, and viral infections, IκB is phosphorylated at critical residues. This phosphorylation induces dissociation of the IκB/NF-κB complex, allowing the free heterodimeric NF-κB to form a heterotetramer that translocates to the nucleus. In the nucleus, it binds to the κB site within promoters and enhancers and functions as a transcriptional activator.|
|Immunogen||Purified recombinant fragment of human NF-κB p65 expressed in E. Coli.|
|Formulation||Ascitic fluid containing 0.03% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Transcription factor p65, Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit, Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3, RELA, NFKB3|
|Dilution||WB~~1/500 - 1/2000|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||NF-κB p65 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex appears to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. p65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. Associates with chromatin at the NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with DDX1. Essential for cytokine gene expression in T-cells (PubMed:15790681).|
|Cellular Location||Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Colocalized with DDX1 in the nucleus upon TNF-alpha induction (By similarity) Nuclear, but also found in the cytoplasm in an inactive form complexed to an inhibitor (I-kappa-B). Colocalizes with GFI1 in the nucleus after LPS stimulation.|
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