|Application ||IF, WB, IHC-P, E|
|Calculated MW||52922 Da|
|Antigen Region||42-71 aa|
|Other Names||Cysteine protease ATG4D, 3422-, AUT-like 4 cysteine endopeptidase, Autophagin-4, Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 4, Autophagy-related protein 4 homolog D, Cysteine protease ATG4D, mitochondrial, ATG4D, APG4D, AUTL4|
|Target/Specificity||This ATG4D antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 42-71 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human ATG4D.|
|Format||Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. This antibody is prepared by Saturated Ammonium Sulfate (SAS) precipitation followed by dialysis against PBS.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||ATG4D Antibody (N-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Cysteine protease ATG4D: Cysteine protease required for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy. Cleaves the C-terminal amino acid of ATG8 family proteins MAP1LC3 and GABARAPL2, to reveal a C-terminal glycine. Exposure of the glycine at the C-terminus is essential for ATG8 proteins conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and insertion to membranes, which is necessary for autophagy. Has also an activity of delipidating enzyme for the PE-conjugated forms.|
|Cellular Location||Cysteine protease ATG4D: Cytoplasm|
|Tissue Location||Mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and, to a lower extent, in testis.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases.
References for protein:
1.Betin, V.M., et al. J. Cell. Sci. 122 (PT 14), 2554-2566 (2009)
2.Lamesch, P., et al. Genomics 89(3):307-315(2007)
3.Marino, G., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 278(6):3671-3678(2003)
References for U251 cell line:
1. Westermark B.; Pontén J.; Hugosson R. (1973).” Determinants for the establishment of permanent tissue culture lines from human gliomas”. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 81:791-805. [PMID: 4359449].
2. Pontén, J.,Westermark B. (1978).” Properties of Human Malignant Glioma Cells in Vitro”. Medical Biology 56: 184-193.[PMID: 359950].
3. Geng Y.;Kohli L.; Klocke B.J.; Roth K.A.(2010). “Chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death in glioma cells is p53 independent”. Neuro Oncol. 12(5): 473–481.[ PMID: 20406898].
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