|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E, IP|
|Other Accession||AAH00479, 12653417|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||55686 Da|
|Application Notes||Akt1 antibody can be used for the detection of Akt1 by Western blot at 1 to 2 µg/mL. Antibody can also be used for immunohistochemistry starting at 2 µg/mL. For immunofluorescence start at 20 µg/mL.|
|Other Names||Akt1 Antibody: AKT, PKB, RAC, CWS6, PRKBA, PKB-ALPHA, RAC-ALPHA, Protein kinase B, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1|
|Reconstitution & Storage||Akt1 antibody can be stored at 4℃ for three months and -20℃, stable for up to one year. As with all antibodies care should be taken to avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles. Antibodies should not be exposed to prolonged high temperatures.|
|Precautions||Akt1 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine- protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)- response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development. Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr- 117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro- apoptotic activity. Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Note=Nucleus after activation by integrin-linked protein kinase 1 (ILK1). Nuclear translocation is enhanced by interaction with TCL1A. Phosphorylation on Tyr-176 by TNK2 results in its localization to the cell membrane where it is targeted for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation and the activated form translocates to the nucleus|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Akt1 Antibody: Akt1, initially identified as the cellular homolog to the retro-viral oncogene v-Akt, is part of the phosphatidyl 3'-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway that is activated by diverse cellular stimuli and regulates critical cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Following phosphorylation of the second messenger PIP2 by PI3K, Akt1 translocates to the cell membrane where it is activated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) 1 and PDK2. The active Akt1 is then able to phosphorylate and activate its substrates, including those that are important for cell proliferation and survival such as TOR and the Bcl-2 homolog Bad. Negative regulation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is mainly accomplished by the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN which catalyzes the conversion of PIP3 to PIP2, thereby preventing the activation of Akt1. Inactivation of this gene often results in excessive Akt1 activity, often leading to the formation of malignant tumors.
Bellacosa A, Testa JR, Staal SP, et al. A retroviral oncogene, akt, encoding a serine-threonine kinase containing an SH2-like region. Science 1991; 254:274-7.
Song G, Ouyang G, and Bao S. The activation of Akt/PKB signaling pathway and cell survival. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2005; 9:59-71.
Alessi DR, Adnjelkovic M, Caudwell B, et al. Mechanism of protein kinase B by insulin and IGF-1. EMBO J. 1996; 15:6541-51.
Nave BT, Ouwens M, Withers DJ, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin is a direct target for protein kinase B: Identification of a convergence point for opposing effects of insulin and amino-acid deficiency on protein translation. Biochem. J. 1999; 344:427-31.
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