|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Other Accession||NP_835739, 30410846|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||Predicted: 50 kDa |
Observed: 57 kDa
|Application Notes||ATG4C antibody can be used for detection of ATG4C by Western blot at 1 - 2 µg/ml. Antibody can also be used for Immunohistochemistry starting at 5 µg/mL. For immunofluorescence start at 20 µg/mL.|
|Target/Specificity||ATG4C; ATG4C antibody is human, mouse and rat reactive. ATG4C is predicted to not cross-react with other ATG4 proteins.|
|Reconstitution & Storage||ATG4C antibody can be stored at 4℃ for three months and -20℃, stable for up to one year.|
|Precautions||ATG4C Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||APG4C, AUTL1, AUTL3|
|Function||Cysteine protease required for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy. Is not essential for autophagy development under normal conditions but is required for a proper autophagic response under stressful conditions such as prolonged starvation (By similarity). Cleaves the C-terminal amino acid of ATG8 family proteins MAP1LC3 and GABARAPL2, to reveal a C-terminal glycine. Exposure of the glycine at the C-terminus is essential for ATG8 proteins conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and insertion to membranes, which is necessary for autophagy. Has also an activity of delipidating enzyme for the PE-conjugated forms.|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in skeletal muscle, heart, liver and testis.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Autophagy, the process of bulk degradation of cellular proteins through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway is important for normal growth control and may be defective in tumor cells. It is involved in the preservation of cellular nutrients under starvation conditions as well as the normal turnover of cytosolic components (1,2). ATG4C, also known as autophagin-3, is one of four mammalian orthologs of the yeast ATG4 protein; all four are cysteine proteases (3). Recent studies have shown that ATG4C and Beclin-1 are regulated by the microRNA miR-376b; overexpression of miR-376b led to decreased mRNA and protein levels, thereby blocking starvation and TOR inhibition-related autophagy (4).
Gozuacik D and Kimchi A. Autophagy as a cell death and tumor suppressor mechanism. Oncogene 2004; 23:2891-906.
Kisen GO, Tessitore L, Costelli P, et al. Reduced autophagic activity in primary rat hepatocellular carcinoma and ascites hepatoma cells. Carcinogenesis 1993; 14:2501-5.
Marino G, Uria JA, Puente XS, et al. Human autophagins, a family of cysteine proteinases potentially implicated in cell degradation by autophagy. J. Biol. Chem. 2003; 278:3671-8.
Korkmaz G, le Sage C, Tekirdag KA, et al. miR-376b controls starvation and TOR inhibition-related autophagy by targeting ATG4C and BECN1. Autophagy 2012; 8:165-76.
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