|Other Names||Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic, TR, Gene associated with retinoic and interferon-induced mortality 12 protein, GRIM-12, Gene associated with retinoic and IFN-induced mortality 12 protein, KM-102-derived reductase-like factor, Thioredoxin reductase TR1, TXNRD1, GRIM12, KDRF|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Isoform 5: Cytoplasm.|
|Tissue Location||Isoform 1 is expressed predominantly in Leydig cells (at protein level). Also expressed in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney and pancreas and in a number of cancer cell lines Isoform 4 is widely expressed with highest levels in kidney, testis, uterus, ovary, prostate, placenta and fetal liver|
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This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridinenucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins aswell as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolismand protection against oxidative stress. The functional enzyme isthought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Eachsubunit contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is requiredfor catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGAcodon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR ofselenocysteine-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure,the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for therecognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal.Alternative splicing results in several transcript variantsencoding the same or different isoforms.
Turanov, A.A., et al. Biochem. J. 430(2):285-293(2010)Javvadi, P., et al. Cancer Res. 70(5):1941-1950(2010)Engstrom, K.S., et al. Mutat. Res. 683 (1-2), 98-105 (2010) :Cadenas, C., et al. Breast Cancer Res. 12 (3), R44 (2010) :Volonte, D., et al. EMBO Rep. 10(12):1334-1340(2009)
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