|Other Names||Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 4, GCN2-like protein, mGCN2, Eif2ak4, Gcn2, Kiaa1338|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Metabolic-stress sensing protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1) on 'Ser-52' in response to low amino acid availability (PubMed:10504407, PubMed:10655230, PubMed:12176355, PubMed:12215525, PubMed:15213227, PubMed:16054071, PubMed:16176978, PubMed:16121183, PubMed:15774759, PubMed:16601681, PubMed:26102367). Plays a role as an activator of the integrated stress response (ISR) required for adapatation to amino acid starvation. Converts phosphorylated eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1 either to a competitive inhibitor of the translation initiation factor eIF-2B, leading to a global protein synthesis repression, and thus to a reduced overall utilization of amino acids, or to a translational initiation activation of specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activator ATF4, and hence allowing ATF4-mediated reprogramming of amino acid biosynthetic gene expression to alleviate nutrient depletion (PubMed:10655230, PubMed:11106749, PubMed:12176355, PubMed:15213227, PubMed:16176978, PubMed:26102367). Binds uncharged tRNAs (By similarity). Involved in cell cycle arrest by promoting cyclin D1 mRNA translation repression after the unfolded protein response pathway (UPR) activation or cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 mRNA translation activation in response to amino acid deprivation (PubMed:16176978, PubMed:26102367). Plays a role in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity, learning as well as formation of long-term memory (PubMed:16121183). Plays a role in neurite outgrowth inhibition (PubMed:23447528). Plays a role in feeding behavior to maintain amino acid homeostasis; contributes to the innate aversion toward diets of imbalanced amino acid composition (PubMed:16054071, PubMed:15774759). Plays a proapoptotic role in response to glucose deprivation (PubMed:20660158). Promotes global cellular protein synthesis repression in response to UV irradiation independently of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 MAPK signaling pathways (PubMed:12176355).|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in liver (PubMed:10504407). Expressed predominantly in the hippocampal CA1 region and the dentate gyrus, and to a lesser degree in CA3 (at protein level) (PubMed:16121183). Expressed in liver, lung, brain, kidney, skeletal muscle and testis (PubMed:10504407, PubMed:10655230) Expressed weakly in heart and spleen (PubMed:10655230). Expressed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, the dentate gyrus and cerebellum (PubMed:16121183). Isoform 1 is widely expressed (PubMed:12215525). Isoform 1 is expressed in brain, liver, skeletal muscle and testis (PubMed:10655230). Isoform 3 is expressed in lung, brain, testis, prostate and choroid plexus (PubMed:12215525). Isoform 4 is expressed in muscle, lung, kidney, brain, testis and prostate (PubMed:10655230, PubMed:12215525)|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Eif2ak4 can phosphorylate the alpha subunit of EIF2 and may mediate translational control.
Bunpo, P., et al. J. Nutr. 140(11):2020-2027(2010)Ye, J., et al. EMBO J. 29(12):2082-2096(2010)Liu, Y., et al. Neoplasia 12(1):61-68(2010)Jasperson, L.K., et al. Blood 114(24):5062-5070(2009)Bunpo, P., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 284(47):32742-32749(2009)
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