|Other Names||Toll-like receptor 9, CD289, TLR9|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP1509b was selected from the C-term region of human Human TLR9 . A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR9 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotides. Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Controls lymphocyte response to Helicobacter infection.|
|Cellular Location||Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein Endosome. Lysosome. Cytoplasmic vesicle, phagosome. Note=Relocalizes from endoplasmic reticulum to endosome and lysosome upon stimulation with agonist.|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in spleen, lymph node, tonsil and peripheral blood leukocytes, especially in plasmacytoid pre- dendritic cells. Levels are much lower in monocytes and CD11c+ immature dendritic cells. Also detected in lung and liver|
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TLR9 is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. TLR9 is preferentially expressed in immune cell rich tissues, such as spleen, lymph node, bone marrow and peripheral blood leukocytes. Studies in mice and human indicate that this receptor mediates cellular response to unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA to mount an innate immune response.
Clark, H.F., et al., Genome Res. 13(10):2265-2270 (2003).Bourke, E., et al., Blood 102(3):956-963 (2003).Fenhalls, G., et al., Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29(1):28-38 (2003).Equils, O., et al., J. Immunol. 170(10):5159-5164 (2003).Gantner, F., et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 33(6):1576-1585 (2003).
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