|Other Names||Protein-arginine deiminase type-4, HL-60 PAD, Peptidylarginine deiminase IV, Protein-arginine deiminase type IV, PADI4, PADI5, PDI5|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP2546a was selected from the N-term region of human PAD4. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Catalyzes the citrullination/deimination of arginine residues of proteins such as histones, thereby playing a key role in histone code and regulation of stem cell maintenance. Citrullinates histone H1 at 'Arg-54' (to form H1R54ci), histone H3 at 'Arg-2', 'Arg-8', 'Arg-17' and/or 'Arg-26' (to form H3R2ci, H3R8ci, H3R17ci, H3R26ci, respectively) and histone H4 at 'Arg-3' (to form H4R3ci). Acts as a key regulator of stem cell maintenance by mediating citrullination of histone H1: citrullination of 'Arg- 54' of histone H1 (H1R54ci) results in H1 displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation, thereby promoting pluripotency and stem cell maintenance. Promotes profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune response to infection in neutrophils by mediating formation of H1R54ci. Citrullination of histone H3 prevents their methylation by CARM1 and HRMT1L2/PRMT1 and represses transcription. Citrullinates EP300/P300 at 'Arg-2142', which favors its interaction with NCOA2/GRIP1.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasmic granule. Note=Cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils and neutrophils|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in eosinophils and neutrophils, not expressed in peripheral monocytes or lymphocytes|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
PAD4 is a member of a family of enzymes responsible for the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues via catalyzation of the deimination of the arginine residues. PAD4 down-regulates histone H3 and H4 arginine methylation, both by preventing arginine methylation by CARM1 and HRMT1L2/PRMT1 and by converting methylarginine to citrulline. This protein may play a role in granulocyte and macrophage development leading to inflammation and immune response.
Nakayama-Hamada, M., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 327(1):192-200 (2005).Wang, Y., et al., Science 306(5694):279-283 (2004).Arita, K., et al., Arthritis Rheum. 11(8):777-783 (2004).Barton, A., et al., Arthritis Rheum. 50(4):1117-1121 (2004).Suzuki, A., et al., Nat. Genet. 34(4):395-402 (2003).
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